By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

Sometimes you need to calculate LPG quantity on board of LPG gas carrier during
loading on top into ship's tanks.

To take ship's samples after every next layer is too long procedure. How to calculate
the density for the calculations of the liquid phase and the molar mass for the
calculations of vapour phase in ship's tanks after each loaded layer and to calculate
corresponding quantity in interim ullages knowing the compositions of OBQ, and
compositions of each line sample for every layer or knowing only densities and molar
masses for OBQ and each blended parcel?

Read More

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

From time to time everybody who needs to calculate oil quantities face such problems
as calculation in different units:
either US customary units or in metric units.

Do you all managed to automate your
oil calculations after the implementation of the new ASTM D1250-2004 for calculation
of CTL (the former VCF) for ship's and shore tanks or or CTPL for LACT meters and API
MPMS 11.5. issued in 2009 which replaced old Tables 11, 13, 52, 56, etc. with formulas?

How do you cope with a double interpolation of volumes taking in account simultaneously
measured ship's ullages, trim and / or list?

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

There is such a big variety of different chemicals and sometimes there is no
laboratory to carry out testing on densities and therefore there is no way to
determine density correction factors or corrections per 1 degree Celcius for
quantity calculations.

Moreover, now more often the volume correction factor is used for xylenes based
on formulas from ASTM D1555M instead of density correction factors.

Where to get such data and how to automate quantity calculations for such chemicals?

Details

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

As you may already know the way quantity calculations of LPG drastically changed in 2007
in comparison to the method used for such calculations since 1952. Moreover, there are 2 way
of calculations in metric units and in US customary units. And what to do, if you need to calculate
the LPG quantity delivered by the gas carrier to the US sea port and at the same time the shore
quantity in the shore tank of the US LPG terminal must be calculated in the US customary units?

Do you know that the British Energy Institute issued in 2012 a new standard for the calculation of shell
expansison or contraction factors which depend on the shape of the shore tank: upright cylyndric,
horisontal cylindric, spheric or prismatic?

How to put it all together?

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

Quite often oil traders, operators of oil trading companies of operators of oil terminals face
necessity to blend different oil products to achieve required quality specifications, for example,
Kumkol crude oil has low sulphur content, but high pour point, while Tengiz crude oil has 2.5 times
higher sulphur content, but quite low pour point. If we blend these 2 grades the quality of the blend
will be improved which will allow to handle Kumkol crude oil without heating or pour point depressants
and at the same time to get better price for the decreased sulphur content of Tengiz crude oil.

But what to do, if some quality parameters do not change linearly, such as pour point, flash point and
viscosity?

How to calculate in this case the required ratio for blending and the price of the blend?

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

There are 69 types of rail tank cars used in the countries of the former Soviet Union for
the transportation of oil product and each type of rail tank cars has its unique calibration
table.

But this is a real nightmare to calculate manually volumes of the product in each rail car
before and after loading or discharge.

Moreover, nowadays more and more customers request an interpolation of volumes with an
accuracy corresponding to 1 mm of the product level in the rail tank car.

And on the top of that some locations and terminals still use different GOST standards
for calculation of the quantity.

What to do in this case and how it will correlate with ASTM calculations?

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

Some dry cargo terminals use the easiest approach in determination of Bill of
lading quanities loaded
on board dry cargo vessels.

They just establish ship's Bill of lading quantities on basis of railway bills.

But this works for bulk cargos pretty well only if you load the cargo straight from the
rail cars into the ship's holds.

But what to do, if you accumulate your ship's lot ashore in stockpiles when some stockpiles
can be loaded into ship's holds only partially and nobody knows exactly how much from each
stockpile was loaded into ship's holds?

Which method should you use then?

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

Sometimes you need to calculate the quantity of bunker not only in ship's bunker tanks,
but in shore tanks as well or in
the tanks of the bunker barge and in the ship's tanks.

In addition it is so tiresome to type typical quality parameters in certificates of quality
for the bunker or typical names of cargo operations in timesheet.

Or sometimes you need to calculate bunker quantity in US customary units, so you need to
convert densities from the bunker quality certificate given to you by the ship's Chief
Engineer into API gravity or vise versa:

for example, to convert API gravity into
the density for metric calculations.

There is a solution to make your life easier in such cases.

By GSS Ops Team
21 January, Monday

As you may know, the most popular method for the determination of the
density of LNG is the Revised Klosek - Mc Kinley method, but this method
has its limitations on composition and temperature, such as follows:

CH_{4} > 60% mol.

iC_{4} + nC_{4} < 4% mol.

N_{2} < 4% mol.

Temperature < 115 K.

Moreover, the Revised Klosek - Mc Kinley method is only applicaple for the saturated pressure of LNG.

But what to do, if an actual pressure of LNG exceeds its saturated pressure?

And what to do in case the composition happened to be beyond beyond such limits?

There are solutions for both cases!..

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